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Scoliosis

What Defines a Scoliosis: 

Traditionally scoliosis is a sideways spinal curve with rotation of the vertebrae (bones) of the spine measured on a front-to-back view X-ray. To qualify as a scoliosis, the curve must exceed 10 degrees. However, scoliosis is really a complex 3-D change of the spine, ribcage and pelvis. The effects of scoliosis include: poor posture, shoulder humping, muscle weakness, and pain. In rare cases scoliosis can lead to heart and lung problems. Sometimes scoliosis can be permanent, but in many cases, with the right approach, scoliosis can be improved.

You can learn more by visiting our scoliosis page by clicking this link.

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Determining Types of Scoliosis: 

By Age: 

  • 0-3 Infantile

  • 3-10 – juvenile

  • 10-18 – adolescent and adult, from either a pre-existing adolescent scoliosis or new onset of Degenerative De Novo Scoliosis.

 

The type of scoliosis is classified further by where the peak of the curve is located in the spine. There are six classifications:

  1. Cervical

  2. Cervicothoracic

  3. Thoracic

  4. Thoracolumbar

  5. Lumbar

  6. Lumbosacral.

 

The prevalence of scoliosis is more common than you might think. It is 0.3%-0.5% in children, 2%-4% in people above 18 years of age, 9% in over 40 year-olds and older and 30% 60 over year-olds and 50% in over 90 year-olds!

Detecting Scoliosis: 

This is a very convenient app that is free to screen you or someone you know that wants to screen their posture for ‘warning signs’ of scoliosis:

https://app.scoliscreen.com/

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Scoliosis Case Studies: 

Research Articles on Scoliosis Rehabilitation & Bracing: 

Negrini S, Donzelli S, Negrini A, Parzini S, Romano M, Zaina F. Specific exercises reduce the need for bracing in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: A practical clinical trial. Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2019 Mar;62(2):69-76. doi: 10.1016/j.rehab.2018.07.010. Epub 2018 Aug 24. PMID: 30145241. 

Medline: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30145241/ 

Zaina F, Poggio M, Donzelli S, Negrini S. Can bracing help adults with chronic back pain and scoliosis? Short-term results from a pilot study. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2018 Aug;42(4):410-414. doi: 10.1177/0309364618757769. Epub 2018 Feb 15. Erratum in: Prosthet Orthot Int. 2019 Aug;43(4):468. PMID: 29446692. 

Medline: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29446692/ 

Donzelli S, Zaina F, Minnella S, Lusini M, Negrini S. Consistent and regular daily wearing improve bracing results: a case-control study. Scoliosis Spinal Disord. 2018 Jul 28;13:16. doi: 10.1186/s13013-018-0164-0. PMID: 30065972; PMCID: PMC6064121. 

Medline: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30065972/ 

Negrini A, Negrini MG, Donzelli S, Romano M, Zaina F, Negrini S. Scoliosis-Specific exercises can reduce the progression of severe curves in adult idiopathic scoliosis: a long-term cohort study. Scoliosis. 2015 Jul 11;10:20. doi: 10.1186/s13013-015-0044-9. PMID: 26279670; PMCID: PMC4537533. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26279670/ 

Zaina, F., de Mauroy, J.C., Donzelli, S. et al. SOSORT Award Winner 2015: a multicentre study comparing the SPoRT and ART braces effectiveness according to the SOSORT-SRS recommendations. Scoliosis 10, 23 (2015).  

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26265932/ 

Negrini S, Donzelli S, Lusini M, Minnella S, Zaina F. The effectiveness of combined bracing and exercise in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis based on SRS and SOSORT criteria: a prospective study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2014 Aug 6;15:263. doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-15-263. PMID: 25095800; PMCID: PMC4132192. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25095800/ 

Lusini M, Donzelli S, Minnella S, Zaina F, Negrini S. Brace treatment is effective in idiopathic scoliosis over 45°: an observational prospective cohort controlled study. Spine J. 2014 Sep 1;14(9):1951-6. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2013.11.040. Epub 2013 Dec 1. PMID: 24295798. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24295798/ 

Zaina F, Donzelli S, Negrini A, Romano M, Negrini S. SpineCor, exercise and SPoRT rigid brace: what is the best for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis? Short term results from 2 retrospective studies. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2012;176:361-4. PMID: 22744530. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22744530/ 

Negrini S, Negrini F, Fusco C, Zaina F. Idiopathic scoliosis patients with curves more than 45 Cobb degrees refusing surgery can be effectively treated through bracing with curve improvements. Spine J. 2011 May;11(5):369-80. doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2010.12.001. Epub 2011 Feb 2. PMID: 21292562. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21292562/ 

Negrini S, Atanasio S, Fusco C, Zaina F. Effectiveness of complete conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (bracing and exercises) based on SOSORT management criteria: results according to the SRS criteria for bracing studies – SOSORT Award 2009 Winner. Scoliosis. 2009 Sep 4;4:19. doi: 10.1186/1748-7161-4-19. PMID: 19732429; PMCID: PMC3224944. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19732429/ 

Negrini S, Zaina F, Romano M, Negrini A, Parzini S. Specific exercises reduce brace prescription in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a prospective controlled cohort study with worst-case analysis. J Rehabil Med. 2008 Jun;40(6):451-5. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0195. PMID: 18509560. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18509560/ 

Negrini S, Atanasio S, Negrini F, Zaina F, Marchini G. The Sforzesco brace can replace cast in the correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A controlled prospective cohort study. Scoliosis. 2008 Oct 31;3:15. doi: 10.1186/1748-7161-3-15. PMID: 18976485; PMCID: PMC2612643. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18976485/ 

Negrini S, Atanasio S, Zaina F, Romano M, Parzini S, Negrini A. End-growth results of bracing and exercises for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Prospective worst-case analysis. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2008;135:395-408. PMID: 18401107. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18401107/ 

Negrini S, Marchini G. Efficacy of the symmetric, patient-oriented, rigid, three-dimensional, active (SPoRT) concept of bracing for scoliosis: a prospective study of the Sforzesco versus Lyon brace. Eura Medicophys. 2007 Jun;43(2):171-81; discussion 183-4. Epub 2006 Sep 24. PMID: 16955065. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16955065/ 

Negrini S, Negrini A, Romano M, Verzini N, Negrini A, Parzini S. A controlled prospective study on the efficacy of SEAS.02 exercises in preventing progression and bracing in mild idiopathic scoliosis. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;123:523-6. PMID: 17108480. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17108480/ 

Monticone M, Ambrosini E, Cazzaniga D, Rocca B, Ferrante S. Active self-correction and task-oriented exercises reduce spinal deformity and improve quality of life in subjects with mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Results of a randomised controlled trial. Eur Spine J. 2014;23:1204–14. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24682356/ 

 Weiss HR, Weiss G, Petermann F. Incidence of curvature progression in idiopathic scoliosis patients treated with scoliosis in-patient rehabilitation (SIR): an age- and sex-matched controlled study. Pediatr Rehabil. 2003 Jan-Mar;6(1):23-30. doi: 10.1080/1363849031000095288. PMID: 12745892. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12745892/ 

Rigo M, Reiter Ch, Weiss HR. Effect of conservative management on the prevalence of surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pediatr Rehabil. 2003 Jul-Dec;6(3-4):209-14. doi: 10.1080/13638490310001642054. PMID: 14713587. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14713587/ 

de Mauroy JC, Journe A, Gagaliano F, Lecante C, Barral F, Pourret S. The new Lyon ARTbrace versus the historical Lyon brace: a prospective case series of 148 consecutive scoliosis with short time results after 1 year compared with a historical retrospective case series of 100 consecutive scoliosis; SOSORT award 2015 winner. Scoliosis. 2015;10:26. Published 2015 Aug 19. doi:10.1186/s13013-015-0047-6 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26300954/ 

McIntire KL, Asher MA, Burton DC, Liu W. Treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis with quantified trunk rotational strength training: a pilot study. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2008 Jul;21(5):349-58. doi: 10.1097/BSD.0b013e318145b7e9. PMID: 18600146. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18600146/ 

Haefeli M, Elfering A, Kilian R, Min K, Boos N. Nonoperative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a 10- to 60-year follow-up with special reference to health-related quality of life. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Feb 1;31(3):355-66; discussion 367. doi: 10.1097/01.brs.0000197664.02098.09. PMID: 16449911. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16449911/ 

Kuru T, Yeldan İ, Dereli EE, Özdinçler AR, Dikici F, Çolak İ. The efficacy of three-dimensional Schroth exercises in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Clin Rehabil. 2016 Feb;30(2):181-90. doi: 10.1177/0269215515575745. Epub 2015 Mar 16. PMID: 25780260. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25780260/ 

 Białek M. Mild angle early onset idiopathic scoliosis children avoid progression under FITS method (Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis). Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 May;94(20):e863. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000863. PMID: 25997065; PMCID: PMC4602882. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25997065/ 

 Noh DK, You JS, Koh JH, Kim H, Kim D, Ko SM, Shin JY. Effects of novel corrective spinal technique on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis as assessed by radiographic imaging. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2014;27(3):331-8. doi: 10.3233/BMR-130452. PMID: 24361823. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24361823/ 

 Weinstein SL, Dolan LA, Wright JG, Dobbs MB. Effects of bracing in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. N Engl J Med. 2013 Oct 17;369(16):1512-21. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1307337. Epub 2013 Sep 19. PMID: 24047455; PMCID: PMC3913566. 

Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24047455/  

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